Fishries and Aquaculture Course Descriptions

Curriculum for Bachelor of Fisheries 

YEAR ONE: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
GSS 101 Use of English I1
GSS 105 Logic, philosophy and Human Existence (HUMANITIES)2
GSS 107Nigeria People and Culture2
GSS 108Agumagu Igbo I1
BIO 101General Biology I3
BIO 103Practical Biology 1
CSC 101Introduction to computer programming I3
ICH 101Basic Organic Chemistry2
ICH 111Basic Inorganic Chemistry2
MAT 101Elementary Mathematics I3
PHY 101General Physics I3
PHY 107General Physics Laboratory1
TOTAL24

 

YEAR ONE: SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
GSS 102Use of English II1
GSS 106Social Science2
GSS 109Agumagu Igbo II1
BIO 102General Biology II3
BIO 104Practical Biology II1
MAT 102Elementary Mathematics II3
CSC 102Introduction to computer programming I3
ICH 102Basic Physical Chemistry2
ICH 112Practical  Chemistry1
PHY 102General Physics II (Electricity & Magnetism)3
PHY 108Practical Physics Laboratory II1
TOTAL21

YEAR TWO: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
AEC 211Principles of Agricultural Economics2
AGR 211General Agriculture3
AST 211Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals2
CSC 201Applications of Computer Science2
CSH 211Crop Anatomy, Taxonomy and Physiology2
FWM 211Introduction to Forestry /wild life Management2
SSL 211Climatology and Biogeography3
SSL 211Principles of Soil Science2
AGR 213Introduction to Biotechnology2
TOTAL20

 

YEAR TWO: SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
AST 232Principles of Animal Production2
CSH 222Principles of crop production2
FST 224Principles of Food Science and Technology2
FAM 212Intro to Fisheries and Aquaculture  Technology2
FST 222Introduction to Agricultural Biochemistry2
STA 202Statistics for Biological Sciences3
FAM 214Hydrobiology (Aquatic Flora and Fauna)2
FAM 216Introduction to home Economics2
AEC 202Introduction to Business in Agriculture2
TOTAL18

 

YEAR THREE: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
FAM 311Ichthyology (Systematics of fishes)2
ENT 301Introduction to Entrepreneurship1
AEC 313Introduction To Farm Management and Production Economics3
FAM 313Aquaculture3
FAM 315Fish Biology2
FAM 317Limnology2
FAM 319Fish Parasites and Diseases2
FAM 321Fish Farming Techniques and Hatchery Management3
FAM 323Fish Ecology2
FAM 325Aquatic Pollution and Toxicology2
FAM 327Introduction to Fish Genetics and Biotechnology2
TOTAL23

 

YEAR THREE: SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
AGR 322Experimental Design and Analysis in Agriculture2
FAM 318Integrated Fish Farming2
FAM 320Fish Nutrition and Management2
FAM 322Fish Processing, preservation and Marketing2
FAM 324Gear Technology2
FAM 326Oceanography2
FAM 328Elementary seamanship and Navigation2
FAM 330Fish Pond Construction and Management2
FAM 332Fish Adaptation and Physiology2
FAM 334Agricultural Biochemistry2
TOTAL22

 

YEAR FOUR

The fourth year should be basically left for practical farm training. This training should be for duration of 12 months of which not less than 80% should be devoted to practical training on a farm and related industries. There should be no classroom lectures during the practical year. The practical farm training should normally not commence before the fourth year (in a 5-year (programme) in order to make it meaningful since the students are expected to put into practical use the knowledge they have learned in the classroom and laboratory. The year would involve practical training in the following areas (NUC, (2007) Benchmark Minimum Academic Standards (BMAS) for Undergraduate Programmes in Nigerian Universities: Agriculture. Pg. 7)

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
FAM 411Fish Gear Use, Design, Production and Maintenance3
FAM 413Aquatic Environmental surveys2
FAM 415Integrated Fish Culture2
FAM 417Fish Pond Construction and Management3
FAM 420Oceanography Techniques3
FAM 421Fish Production and management Techniques2
FAM 422Fish Nutrition and Feed Formulation Technology3
FAM 423Fish Processing, Preservation and Marketing3
FAM 424Applied Chemical Techniques in Aquatic Environment2
FAM 426Fisheries Engineering (Aquaculture)3
FAM 428Fish Hatchery Management, fingerlings and Fry Production3
FAM 430Report Writing3
FAM 432Principles of Fish Resources and Stock Assessment2
TOTAL35

 

YEAR FIVE: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
FAM 500Seminar1
FAM 511Fish Production and Management2
FAM 513Production of Other Marine Products2
FAM 515Ornamental Fisheries and Aquaria Design2
FAM 517Nigeria Feeds and Feeding Stuffs2
FAM 519Fish Population Dynamics2
FAM 521Applied Fish Biometrics2
FAM 525Administration And Programme Planning in Extension2
FAM 527Fish Farming Engineering2
FAM 523Aquatic Microbiology2
TOTAL19

 

                   YEAR FIVE: SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCourse CodeCourse TitleCredit Unit
FAM562Silviculture for Water Conservation and Fish Production1
FAM 522Advance Nutrition2
FAM 524Fish Storage And Processing Technology2
FAM 526Fisheries Economics2
FAM 528Water Quality Management And Pollution Control2
FAM 530Farm Management and Fishery Business management2
FAM 532Fish Policy And Legislation2
FAM 534Fish Genetics And Breeding2
FAM 599Project4
TOTAL19

 

 Course Descriptions

200 Level

Second Semester

FAM 212: Introduction to Fisheries and Wildlife (2 Credits) 

The important fishes and wildlife of West Africa with emphasis on Nigerian species. Classification, evolution, morphology and basic structure of fishes. The adaptation of fish to aquatic life. Life cycle of principal species of fishes and wildlife. Significance of fishes and wildlife in the diet of Nigerians. The fish and wildlife industries in Nigeria. Fundamental Principles of fish and wildlife management and production.

FAM 214: Aquatic Flora and Fauna (2 Credits) 

Study and identification of the characteristic flora and fauna of importance in the fresh water and coastal swamps of the tropics. The ecology, utilization and management of aquatic flora and fauna. Control of aquatic weeds in ponds – chemical, mechanical and biological. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week).

FAM 216: Introduction to Home Economics (2 Credits) 

Philosophy, Scope, objectives and historical development of Home Economics. Examination of basic human needs with respect to food, clothing, shelter and health, Programme approaches in Home Economics which will help meet these needs. Preparation for careers in a variety of occupations.

300 Level

First Semester

FAM 311: Ichthyology (Systematics of Fish (2 Credits) Principles of systematics. Taxonomy and detailed study of principal commercial species of Nigerian fish; inland, estuarian and ocean, water invertebrates and reptiles. Identification of species using keys and monographs. Important world species; sardine, tuna, anchornveta etc. biological attributes of fish populations. Phyolgenetic relationship. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical per week). 

AEC 313: Introduction to Farm Management and Production Economics (3 Credits)

Theory of production. Principles of agricultural production and resource use; factor — factor, factor — product and product — product relationship. Consumption and resource allocation in Agriculture. Farm costs and revenue theories. Elements of time, risk and uncertainty in agricultural production. Type of farm records and their uses. Farm budgeting, gross and net margin analysis and farm planning. 

FAM 313: Aquaculture (3 Credits)

Aims and types of aquaculture. History, present organization and status of aquaculture in Nigeria. Principles of aquaculture – liming and pond fertilization; food supply; growth rate and food conversion; selection of culture species, introduction of exotic species and their implications. Water requirements. Stocking, feeding and harvesting practices. Fish farm design. Economic consideration of aquaculture. (2 hours of lectures and 3 hours of practical per week).

FAM 315: Fish Biology (2 Credits)

The gross external and internal anatomy of a typical bony and a typical cartilaginous fish. The different types of anatomical systems and basic functions of each system of organs in the fish. Embryology and life history of a fish with special reference to commercially important fish e.g. tilapia, clarias, catfish and mullet. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical per week). 

FAM 317: Limnology (2 Credits)

Physical and chemical properties of both inland and sea water. Hydrology and water cycles. Properties of natural and man-made lakes. Thermal properties and stratification. (1 hour and 3 hours of practical per week). 

FAM 319: Fish Parasites and Diseases (2 Credits)

Identification, morphology, taxonomy, life history of fish parasites. The ecological and pathological effects of parasites and diseases of fish. Epidemiology of parasites populations in water body. Common bacterial, fungal and viral fish diseases and their control. Other enemies of fish. International restriction binding the transportation of fish across country boundaries. Fish ponds and public health. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week).

FAM 321: Fish Farming Techniques and Hatchery Management (3 Credits) 

Artisanal and commercial fishing methods and importance in fishing boats, trawlers and gears – hooks, traps and nets – different types of fish culture techniques, monoculture, polyculture, selected breeding, intensive and extensive culture in inland and brackish water, in rice fields, in floating cages and rafts. Gear selectivity; electro fishing. Spawning methods; artificial fertilization; incubation, rearing, harvesting and transportation of fry and fingerlings. Selection and care of breeders; larvae and fingerlings. Control of weeds, parasites and diseases in the hatchery, control of physiochemical properties of water. (2 hours of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week). 

FAM 323: Fish Ecology (2 Credits)

Ecology of fishes with special reference to distribution and natural history and application of this knowledge for fisheries management and obtaining maximum returns from fishery resources. Characteristics of the aquatic environment. Organic production in aquatic fauna and flora-algal blooms and eutrophication; plankton, and benthos, biomass assessment. Food and feeding habit of fish, food and habit selection, population, niche concept. Food chains. Reproductive behaviour of and life cycles of some selected species. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week).

FAM 325: Aqua-pollution and Toxicology (2 Credits)

Types and sources of pollution and their adverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic life forms: Environmental pollution, air pollution, atmospheric aerosols. Ozone layer depletion and green house effects. Acid rain and sources of soil contamination. Aquatic pollution and pollutants. Methods of pollution control. Introduction, origin and nature of toxicology. Absorption, distribution and excretion of toxicants. (1 hour and 3 hours of practical per week). 

FAM 327: Introduction to Fish Genetics and Biotechnology (2 Credits)

Definition of biotechnology. Relevance of biotechnology to fish production. Techniques and tools in biotechnology. Biosafety.

 

Second Semester

AGR 322: Experimental Design and Analysis in Agriculture (2 Credits)

Design of experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Analysis of variance table. Experimental error, degrees of freedom. Assumption of ANOVA. Data Transformation. Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Latin Square Design (LSD)

FAM 318: Integrated Fish Farming (2 Credits)

Definition of integrated fish farming and its origin. Characteristics of fish and plants used in integrated aquaculture. Integration of fish with plants: rice, plantain, pineapple etc. Integration of fish with animals: chicken, pigs, duck, cattle, goat etc. Planning and establishment of integrated aquaculture in different environments. Problems of integrated aquaculture and how to control them. Aquaponics and its principles (1 hour and 3 hours of practical per week).

FAM 320: Fish Nutrition and Management (2 Credits)

Principles of fish nutrition. Chemistry and Nutritive value of various classes of fish food. Feed evaluation. Proximate analysis. Nutrient requirements of fish. Nutrient sources and practical consideration in fish feeding. Feed formulation and manufacturing (1 hour and 3 hours of practical per week).

FAM 322: Fishery Technology, Processing and Storage (2 Credits)

Post-harvest spoilage; principles & methods of preservation, packaging, storage, product evaluation and quality control. Estimation of nutrients in fish flesh. Traditional versus modern preservation techniques. (1 hour and 3 hours of practical per week).

FAM 324: Fishing Gear Technology (2 Credits)

Study of types of gear and fishing craft. Properties of the materials used in the construction of fish gears. Construction of hooks, traps and nets. Assessment of efficiency of fishing gear. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week).

FAM 326: Oceanography (2 Credits)

Study of the temperature and chemistry of sea water. Biological activities and their distribution. Salinity, chlorinity, currents, tides, waves, sound and radiation in the sea, conductivity diffusion, viscosity and dynamics of sea water. Distribution and behaviour of plankton. Brackish water conditions and fauna. Interrelationship of /and physiological adaptations of marine organisms. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week). 

FAM 328: Elementary Seamanship and Navigation (2 Credits)

Important sea terminology; parts of a boat, strength of wind and state of sea. Coast lights and light vessels. Measures for distance, depth, speed etc. launching and boarding of small boats. Life saving and fire fighting equipments and methods. Swimming. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week). 

FAM 330: Fish Pond Construction and Management I (2 Credits)

Principles of fish pond construction. Preparation of ponds for stocking. Management of flora and water quality, maintenance of ponds. Harvesting from ponds. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week) 

FAM 332: Fish Adaptation and Physiology (2 Credits)

The different shapes and adaptive designs in fish in relation to the aquatic environment. Natural environmental adaptation of fish, migration, reproduction, feeding habits, salinity, temperatures and life cycles. Modified environmental behaviour of fish to pressure, light, electrical field and noise. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week).

FAM 334: Agricultural Biochemistry (2 Credits)

Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid. Chemistry and mode of action of enzymes and hormones. Chemistry and analysis of selected agricultural products.

400 Level

The fourth year should be basically left for practical farm training. This training should be for duration of 12 months of which not less than 80% should be devoted to practical training on a farm and related industries. There should be no classroom lectures during the practical year. The practical farm training should normally not commence before the fourth year (in a 5-year (programme) in order to make it meaningful since the students are expected to put into practical use the knowledge they have learned in the classroom and laboratory. The year would involve practical training in the following areas. (NUC (2007), Benchmark Minimum Academic Standards (BMAS) for Undergraduate Programmes in Nigerian Universities: Agriculture. Pg. 7):

 

FAM 411: Fish Gear Use, Design, Production & Maintenance (3 Credits)

Principles of fishing techniques used in major commercial fisheries related to vessel design. Fishing boats, trawlers and gears. Instrumentation and facilities required for the operation and handling of specialized fishing gear and onboard fish processing. Practice of the use, design, production and maintenance of fishing gears. Identification of problems of production and maintenance of fishing gears. Determination of efficiency of fishing gears in water bodies.

FAM 413: Aquatic Environmental Surveys (2 Credits)

Classification of the aquatic environment (Marine, Brackish, fresh stagnant water, running waters, warm waters, cold water). Aquatic fauna and flora ( Plankton, Nekton, attached organisms, periphyton, in-fauna). Characteristics of aquatic organisms. Aquatic environmental and hydro cycle in the important aquatic environment. Visits to some aquatic sites to assess (a) the effect of erosion (b) important aquatic plants and animal species in the area (c) soil and water characteristics and (d) other important environmental issues like oil pollution. 

FAM 415: Integrated Fish Culture (2 Credits)

Integration of fish with animals: chicken, pigs, duck, goat etc. integration of fish with plants: rice, plantain, pineapple etc. aquaponics. Planning and establishment of integrated aquaculture in different environments.

FAM 417: Fish Pond Construction & Management (3 Credits)

General surveying, site selection, fresh and brackish water pond construction, dykes, sluice gates, drainage facilities, tanks, ponds, pens, cages, rafts, and other types of fish rearing facilities. Design of inland fish farms, pumping stations and fish hatcheries. Visit to productive fish ponds and assessment of pond features and efficiency. Determination of yield and fish quality of selected fish ponds. Identification of common problems of fish pond management and possible solutions.

FAM 420: Oceanography Techniques (3 Credits)

Determination of chemical, physical and biological properties of sea water of some selected sites. Visits to some selected coastal water bodies. Assessment of distribution and behaviour of planktons and other marine organisms. Water sampling techniques. Bottle sampling techniques; the use grabs, sieves and quadrats. Plankton preservation techniques, plankton enumeration techniques. Titration methods for oxygen etc. use of echosounders; current speedometers.

FAM 421: Fish Production and Management (2 Credits)

Practical aspects of handling and care of fish, breeding of fish. Production of fry and fingerlings, management of breeders, growers and other types of fish and marine products. Buildings and equipment needed in fish farms; procurement of feed and systems of feeding. Harvesting and effectiveness of fisheries management policies. Preparation of management plans for fisheries projects. Collection of farm management information. The need for farm records. Types of farm records, designs for records taking in a fish farm.

FAM 422: Fish Nutrition & Feed Formulation Technology (3 Credits)

Sources of natural and artificial nutrients. Production of live feed and its importance in aquaculture. Locally available feed ingredients and nutrient values. Feeding trial experiments and statistical considerations. Effect of fish feeds on fish yield in selected fish farms. Common technologies for preparation of fish feeds and their application to fish farms. Determination of nutritive values/proximate composition of important fish feeds. Feed-mill technology. Feed-mill building and equipment for various operations.

 

FAM 423: Fish Processing, Preservation and Marketing (3 Credits)

Techniques of fish processing and preservation in selected areas. Smoking, drying and other product development techniques such as silage, fish cake etc. basic principles of canning for relevant aquaculture products. Filleting, sorting and grading of fish. Methods of depuration of molluscs. Quality control including sanitation standards. Removal of flavours from fish and shellfish. Methods of evaluating freshness. General quality determination. Fish meal production, fish protein concentrate, production and preservation. Ways of marketing fish in selected areas.

FAM 424: Applied Chemical Techniques used in Aquatic Environment (2 Credits)

Procedures for obtaining representatives samples for chemical analysis of biological materials in the field. Procedures for initial treatment and wet chemical or instrumental analysis in pollution studies. Related problems, comparative methods for analysis of different sample types, sample collection in the field. Analysis of biological material, water and sediment. Instrumental analysis methods including atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas chromatography, neutron activation.

FAM 426: Fisheries Engineering (Aquaculture) (3 Credits)

Pond and farm design; pen design. A study of methods of construction, equipment and machines used for construction of fish farms or ponds. The operation of water pumps, paddle wheels, demand feeders, automatic feeders, water flow measurements in streams, flow pipes and channels, assessment of velocities of water flow to and fro fish farms.

FAM 428: Fish Hatchery Management: Fingerlings and Fry Production (3 Credits)

Methods of induced spawning, larval rearing in tanks, nursery ponds and fry care. Larval rearing in flow  through systems. Induced spawning of shrimps. Collection and care of brood stock. Collection of fish, shrimps and oyster seed from the wild. Eye ablation in shrimps. Site visits.

FAM 430: Report Writing (3 Credits) 

Organisation and presentation of technical ideas. Format and guide to the laws of a good report writing.

FAM 432 Principles of Fish Resources and Stock Assessment (2 Credits)

Theory and methods of conducting resource assessment surveys, including survey planning, survey execution and data acquisition, analysis, interpretation and presentation. Emphasis on the use of survey techniques to understand the status of fishery resources feasibility studies.

To graduate, a student shall have undergone 4 or 5 years of study depending on his entry point, including one practical year of 12 months. The activities of the practical year should include periodic seminars on the student’s work as a way of stimulating interest as well as the presentation of a written report to be graded at the end of the year. (NUC (2007), Benchmark Minimum Academic Standards (BMAS) for Undergraduate Programmes in Nigerian Universities: Agriculture. Pg. 8)

500 Level

First Semester

FAM 500: Seminar (1 Credit)

Presentation and discussion of various topics in fisheries science. The student is expected to prepare and make a presentation of the final year project to the Department as well as participate in all seminars.

FAM 511: Fish Production and Management (2 Credits)

Practical aspects of handling and care of fish. Breeding of fish. Production of fingerlings and fries; management of breeders; growers and other types of fish and marine products; buildings and equipment needed in a fish farm; procurement of feed and systems of feeding. Harvesting and marketing. Appraisal of management structure and effectiveness of fisheries management policies. Preparation of management plan for fisheries project. 

FAM 513: Production of Other Marine Products (2 Credits)

Ecology, life histories of crustaceans and aquatic molluscs; culture of shrimps, oysters; crabs, crayfish, lobster, cockles, periwinkles, marine gastropods, frogs, edible sea weeds and fresh water plants. Deep sea and shore farming of some products. Processing and preservation of marine products. (1 hour of lectures and 3 hours of practical/week).

FAM 515: Ornamental Fishes and Aquaria Design (2 Credits)

Ornamental fish breeding, management and nutrition; design and maintenance of various aquaria. 

FAM 5I7: Nigerian Feeds and Feeding Stuffs (2 Credits)

Classification of foods, feeding stuffs and feed supplements. An extensive coverage of the chemistry and nutritive values of succulent feeding stuffs, concentrate feeds (cereals and legumes). Chemistry and Nutritive values of some Nigerian grasses and legume species. Consideration of methods of their biological value evaluation. Feed mill technology.

FAM 519: Fish Population Dynamics (2 Credits)

Fishing effort and catch per unit effort. Population estimation, age and growth; natality and mortality. Computation of yields from given recruitment. Stock assessment. 

FAM 521: Applied Fish Biometrics (2 Credits)

Research definitions & types; scientific methods & simple characters of well-planned experiment; steps in experimentation re-appraisal; basic definitions; experimental unit (plots); variable treatments; population parameter, statistics etc. principles of experimental designs and analysis, replication, randomization, blocking & orthogonality; experimental designs, completely randomized block design, error definition & types. Least significant difference (LSD) & fixed range test.

Defining a research problem; developing hypothesis & objectives, principles of research design; questionnaire of proportion & collection of data, measurement; statistical theory, different statistical methods for handling data; presentation of research findings in narrative, tabular & graphical forms.

FAM 523 Aquatic Microbiology (2 Credits)

Classification of aquatic microorganisms. Role and significance of microorganisms in aquatic environment. Microbial metabolism. Biofilms and bioremediation. Microbial degredation of pesticides.

FAM 525: Administration and Programme Planning in Extension (2 Credits)

Concepts, theories, principles and guideline of administration, organization, supervision as applied to extension; importance of programme planning in extension. Principles and concepts of programme planning in agricultural extension need, educative objective, learning experience, clientele participation, plan of work, calendar of work. The role of good public relations, good leadership and cooperation for an extension worker. Associations and cooperatives; concepts of evaluation applied to agricultural extension programmes.

FAM 527: Fish Farming Engineering (2 Credits)

General surveying, site selection: Fresh water and brackish water pond construction. Design and construction of dykes, sluice gates, drainage facilities, tanks, ponds, pens, cages, rafts and other types of fish rearing facilities, design of inland fish farms, pumping stations and fish hatcheries.

Second Semester

FAM 562 Silviculture for Water Conservation and Fish Production

Tree planting on banks of streams, rivers, lakes, ponds etc. to conserve water resources towards the enhancement of growth and development of fish species (establishment of green belt by tree planting). Choice of tree species that can:

  1. Survive and grow on the banks of different water bodies and those that can survive flooding, salinity or other characteristics of the water and soil
  2. Those that can promote fish growth and development through leaf-fall, seeds or fruits
  3. Those that cannot produce toxic substances which can adversely affect fish
  4. Determination of suitable width of the green belt on the two sides of a river
  5. Development of suitable forest management techniques for green belt.

Importance of wetlands in fish production.

FAM 522: Advanced Fish Nutrition (2 Credits)

Principles of fish nutrition. Requirements for energy, protein, vitamins and minerals, and non-nutrient components; feed computation and formulation methods; the fish feed industry; feed pelleting; fish feed habits; feed evaluation; practical considerations in fish feed. Feed formulation, feed mixing and manufacture of feed on commercial scale. 

FAM 524: Fish Storage and Processing Technology (2 Credits)

Composition of fish. Post-harvest spoilage; biochemical and microbiological changes in fish post-mortem. Principles and methods of preservation, packaging, storage, product evaluation & quality control. Nature and effect of processing procedures. Estimation of nutrient in fish flesh; traditional versus modern preservation techniques.

FAM 526: Fisheries Economics (2 Credits)

Major economic constrains in fishery development, free access fishery, sustainable yield curve and total revenue curve. Bionornic equilibrium, factor rents, welfare economic theory and its relevance for fisheries; externalities in fisheries, capital investment and depreciation of equipment, consumer and consumption patterns; fishery resources & right of ownership.

FAM 528: Water Quality Management and Pollution Control (2 Credits)

Physical composition of water bodies; water chemistry and nutrient cycles; sampling methods; management of selected marine; marine brackish and fresh water. Chemical, mechanical and biological methods for maintaining and improving water quality. Ecological characteristics of polluted waters; effects of pollution on fish, plankton, benthic, macro invertebrates, algae and water quality.

FAM 530: Fishery Business Management (2 Credits)

Fish farm planning & organization; farm budgeting, farm growth, problems of organizing &managing fish farms under commercial & peasant systems. The scope fishery business and management. Types of business management, types of credits extended to fish farming; sources of credit & loans; marketing arrangement; fish farm record and accounting; financial management. Cooperative societies.

FAM 532: Fisheries Policy and Legislation (2 Credits)

Fisheries institution; conservation strategies; fisheries policy and laws in Nigeria; international laws of the sea

FAM 534: Fish Breeding and Genetics (2 Credits)

Basic principles of Mendelian inheritance. Breeding of common fish species in nature. Hatchery propagation and early rearing of common fish species. Genetic improvement of fish and shell fish species by chromosome set manipulations – ploidy induction, gynogenesis, androgenesis and trangenesis. Mode of inheritance and continuous variation. Dominance and interaction deviations. Components of variation: additive and non-additive. Genetic parameters: repeatability, heritability, phenotypic and environmental correlations.